The underground subculture was initially more culturally oriented on drugs, sex, comix and music (see separate category). The underground magazines united and exchanged their publications though the Underground Press Syndicate (UPS) and the Liberation News Service (LNS). In the late Sixties, early Seventies the underground split up in culturally-, politically-, spiritually- and action-oriented groups. Action groups focused on e.g. ecology peace, gay liberation, women’s lib, squatting, city planning, prisoner’s rights. Each group having its own magazines and other means of expression in print. Eventually, in 1976, the cultural complacency and excess in the Seventies and some of the action groups bred punk.
Refs.: Jan Pen & Peter Sijnke (2022) Tegenkultuur. Nederlandse undergroundpublicaties 1964-1976.
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